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As for Urine Reagent Analysis Strip Uncut Sheets , we have various parameters ranging from 1 to 12 .
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PRINCIPLE AND EXPECTED VALUES
URS Ascorbic acid: This test involves decolorization of Tillmann’s reagent. The presence of ascorbic acid causes the color of the test field to change from blue-green to orange.
Glucose: This test is based on the enzymatic reaction that occurs between glucose oxidase, peroxidase and chromogen. Glucose if first oxidized to produce gluconic acid
and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of glucose oxidase. The hydrogen peroxide reacts with potassium iodide chromogen in the presence of peroxidase. The extent to
which the chromogen is oxidized determines the color which is produced, ranging from green to brown. Low amounts of glucose are normally excreted in urine.3 Glucose
concentrations as low as 100 mg/dL, read at either 10 or 30 seconds, may be considered abnormal if results are consistent. At 10 seconds, results should be
interpreted qualitatively. For semi-quantitative results, read at 30 seconds only.
URS Bilirubin: This test is based on azo-coupling reaction of bilirubin with diazotized dichloroaniline in a strongly acidic medium. Varying bilirubin levels will produce a
pinkish-tan color proportional to its concentration in urine. In normal urine, no bilirubin is detectable by even the most sensitive methods. Even trace amounts of bilirubin require further investigation. Atypical results (colors different from the negative or positive color blocks shown on the color chart) may indicate that bilirubin-derived bile pigments are present in the urine specimen, and are possibly masking the bilirubin reaction.
URS Ketone: This test is based on ketones reacting with nitroprusside and acetoacetic acid to produce a color change ranging from light pink for negative results to a darker pink or purple color for positive results. Ketones are normally not present in urine. Detectable ketone levels may occur in urine during physiological stress conditions such as fasting, pregnancy and frequent strenuous exercise.4-6 In starvation diets, or in other abnormal carbohydrate metabolism situations, ketones appear in the urine in excessively high concentration before serum ketones are elevated.7
URS Specific Gravity: This test is based on the apparent pKa change of certain pretreated polyelectrolytes in relation to ionic concentration. In the presence of an indicator, colors range from deep blue-green in urine of low ionic concentration to green and yellow-green in urine of increasing ionic concentration. Randomly collected urine may vary in specific gravity from 1.003-1.040. Twenty-four hour urine from healthy adults with normal diets and fluid intake will have a specific gravity of 1.016-1.022.8 In cases of severe renal damage, the specific gravity is fixed at 1.010, the value of the glomerular filtrate.
URS Blood: This test is based on the peroxidase-like activity of hemoglobin which catalyzes the reaction of cumene-hydroperoxide and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine. The resulting color ranges from orange to green to dark blue. Any green spots or green color development on the reagent area within 60 seconds is significant and the urine specimen should be examined further. Blood is often, but not invariably, found in the urine of menstruating females.
URS pH: This test is based on a double indicator system which gives a broad range of colors covering the entire urinary pH range. Colors range from orange to yellow and green to blue. The expected range for normal urine specimens from newborns is pH 5–7. The expected range for other normal urine specimens is pH 4.5–8, with an average result of pH 6.
URS Protein: This reaction is based on the phenomenon known as the "protein error” of pH indicators where an indicator that is highly buffered will change color in the presence of proteins (anions) as the indicator releases hydrogen ions to the protein. At a constant pH, the development of any green color is due to the presence of protein. Colors range from yellow to yellow-green for negative results and green to green-blue for positive results. 1-14 mg/dL of protein may be excreted by a normal kidney.9 A color matching any block greater than trace indicates significant proteinuria. For urine with high specific gravity, the test area may most closely match the trace color block even though only normal concentrations of protein are present. Clinical judgment is required to evaluate the significance of trace results.
URS Urobilinogen: This test is based on a modified Enhrlich reaction between p-diethylaminobenzaldehyde and urobobilinogen acid in strongly acidic medium to
produce a pink color. Urobilinogen is one of the major compounds produced in heme synthesis and is a normal substance in urine. The expected range for normal urine with this test is 0.2-1.0 mg/dL (3.5-17 µmol/L). A result of 2.0 mg/dL (35 µmol/L) may be of clinical significance, and the patient specimen should be further evaluated.
URS Nitrite: This test depends upon the conversion of nitrate to nitrite by the action of Gram negative bacteria in the urine. In an acidic medium, nitrite in the urine reacts with p-arsanilic acid to form a diazonium compound. The diazonium compound in turn couples with 1 N-(1-naphthyl)- ethylenediamine to produce a pink color. Nitrite is not
detectable in normal urine.3 The nitrite area will be positive in some cases of infection,depending on how long the urine specimens were retained in the bladder prior tocollection. Retrieval of positive cases with the nitrite test ranges from as low as 40% in cases where little bladder incubation occurred, to as high as approximately 80% in cases where bladder incubation took place for at least 4 hours.
URS Leukocytes: This test reveals the presence of granulocyte esterases. The esterases cleave a derivatized pyrazole amino acid ester to liberate derivatized hydroxy
pyrazole. This pyrazole then reacts with a diazonium salt to produce a beige-pink to purple color. Normal urine specimens generally yield negative results. Trace results may be of questionable clinical significance. When trace results occur, it is recommended to retest using a fresh specimen from the same patient. Repeated trace and positive results are of clinical significance.
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